0

GEOS-240: Lost Cities: Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

Beyond the photosynthetic zone, the deep ocean used to be thought of as relatively devoid of life. However, in 1977 an expedition from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, using the research submersible Alvin, discovered densely populated benthic communities living around hydrothermal vents. What was discovered was like something from science fiction: giant clams and mussels, tubeworms up to 3 m in length, thick mats of filamentous bacteria, yeti crabs and chimney vents spewing black smoke (Vrijenjoek, 2010).

Continue Reading

0

GEOS-240: Climate Change and Fish Migration

A large Study was undertaken to tag and follow the bluefin tuna on its yearly migration around the planet to feed and spawn. Bluefin have some of the longest migration patterns in the world and have been known to routinely cross the Atlantic Ocean.

Humans need fish to survive, around the world around 850 million people rely on fish for  their primary source of protein(Brander, 2007).  

Continue Reading

0

GEOS-240: Blue Ringed Octopus

The Hapalochlaena lunulata displaying its’ blue rings, warning a potential predator

Commonly found around the southern coast of Australia, the Indian Ocean and the West Pacific (Ray, 2000), the Blue Ringed Octopus is a part of the Hapalochlaena genus (Anderson et al., 2010) with four closely related species; H. marculsa, H. lunulata, H. fasciata, and H.

Continue Reading

0

GEOS-240: Living in a viscous fluid.

Swimming is an interesting mechanism that not many people think about. While it seems rather normal on the scale of a human being, smaller organisms have to cope with some strange phenomena. Before these problems can be discussed, some fundamental properties of a fluid need to be defined. With regards to swimming, the most important characteristic of a fluid is its viscosity.

Continue Reading

0

GEOS-240: Threats to Coral Reefs: Acidification of Earth’s Oceans

A coral reef is a diverse ecosystem that consists of a collection of biological communities of calcifying organisms. These ecosystems are currently being threatened by the rising acidification of earth’s oceans.  Ocean acidification is caused by pH reductions and changes in fundamental chemical balances (Kleypas, 2009). The corals have a hard calcium carbonate skeleton that is most directly affected by ocean acidification.

Continue Reading

0

GEOS-240: The Role of Oceanic Bacteria within the Marine Environment

Marine bacteria play a very important role in driving many of the ocean's life-sustaining processes

 

Both on land and at sea, bacteria play a rather unique role within the structure of living organisms. At one point, bacteria are the beginning of the food chain, being the first and smallest organism to be consumed. However, bacteria are also the end of the chain, deriving their energy and sustenance through the decomposition of organic material.

Continue Reading

0

GEOS-240: Large-Scale whaling of Japan-A scientific excuse?

12660449_111n

Whaling in japan is defined as an excuse of “scientific investigation” by Japanese fishermen in encouraged by Japanese governments. Large-scale whaling is rare among other countries in the world. The history of Japan’s commercial whaling is over 400 years. It is currently the world’s largest whaling and whale consuming country. These fishermen even killing some of rare whale species which met strong strongly protest against by world’s environment protection organizations.

Continue Reading